Herakles | Written by Euripides, translated by Ann Carson, directed by Hugh Hanson Website
Acheron (AKH-e-rohn) – river in Epirus supposed to lead to the Underworld
Amphion (AM-fee-on) – early mythical king of Thebes, powerful musician whose magical lyre builds the city, husband of Niobe
Aphrodite (Af-ro-DIE-tee) – Olympian goddess of love, mother of Eros, personified force of desire
Ares (AIR-eez) – Olympian god, son of Zeus, god of war, force of destruction and often associated with Thrace and the warlike Thracians
Bakkhai (BAK-kai) – ecstatic female followers of Dionysus
Boreas (BO-ray-uss) – god of the north wind who lives in Thrace
Bosphorus (BOS-for-uss) – narrow channel in Thrace separating Europe and Asia and connecting the Aegean with the Black Sea
Danae – (DAH-nah-ay) – daughter of King Acrisios of Argos,impregnated by Zeus in a shower of gold, mother of Perseus
Demeter (DE-me-ter) – Olympian goddess of the earth and fertility, mother of Persephone, worshipped at Eleusis and throughout Athens
Dirce (DEER-cay) – famous spring and river of Thebes where Kadmos killed a huge serpent of Ares guarding the water
Dionysus (Die-oh-NIE-suss) – divine son of Zeus and the Theban princess Semele, god associated with wine, fertility, theater, the mask, dance, , music, madness, ecstasyIsmene; he seizes the throne and dies with his brother who tries to usurp him
Dryas (DRY-uss) – son of King Lykourgoas of Thrace mistakenly killed by his father
Edonians (E-DO-nee-unz) – warlike Thracian people northeast of Grece
Elesusis (Ell-YOU-sis) – village 25 kilometers west of Athens and site of the Eleusinian Mysteries, a cult in honor of Demeter and Persephone
Erekhtheids (E-RECK-thee-udz) - royal family of Athens descended from king Erekhtheus
Eros (AIR-os) – personified desire and son of Aphrodite                                                                                                                                  Eteocles (E-TEE-oh-kleez) – son of Oedipus and brother of Polyneices, Antigone and
Euridice (You-RID-i-cee) – wife of Creon and mother of Haemon and Megareus
Kreon (KREE-on) – successor of Oodipus as king of Thebes, brother of Jocasta, maternal uncle of Antigone etc, husband of Euridice and father of Haemon
Furies –dread spirits of blood vengeance from the Underworld, avengers of bloodshed within families, often driving their victims to madness
Hades (HAY-deez) god of the Underworld and husband of Persephone
Haemon – (HAY-mon) – son of Creon and Euripides and betrothed to Antigone
Iacchus (Ee-AH-kuss) – epithet of Dionysus as a youth associated with the Eleusinian Mysteries, its songs and processions
Jocasta (Joe-KAS-tah) – wife of King Laios and both mother and wife to Oedipus, mother with Oedipus of four children, commits suicide upon discovery of the facts
Ismene (Iz-MEE-nee) – daughter of Oedipus, sister of Antigone, Eteocles & Polyneices
Kadmos (KAD-muss) – mythical founder of Thebes, arriving from Phoenicia in search of his sister Europa, killing the serpent and planting its teeth from which spring the ancestors of the future Thebans, the Sown Men
Kastalia (Kass-TAY-lee-ah) – spring sacred to Apollo at Delphi, its waters traditionally associated with song and poetry
Korykian Nymphs (Kor-I-kee-un) – minor female deities at Delphi associated with the god Dionysus
Labdakos (LAB-dah-kuss) – father of King Laios of Thebes
Megareus (Meg-ARE-yusss) – deceased son of Kreon and Euridice who sacrificed himself To save Thebes
Muses – 9 daughters of Zeus and Mnemosyne noted for song, dance and poetry
Niobe (Nigh-OH-bee) – daughter of Tantalos and later the wife of Amphion, an early king of Thebes; she boastfully compared her 7 sons and 7 daughters to the divine children of Leda; she is thereby punished by Apollo and Artemis killing all her children; in her grief she is transformed into a rocky mountain face in Phrygia
Olympos (Oh-LIM-puss) – mountain in northern Greece and the home of the Olympians
Pallas (PAL-lass) – epithet of Athena, daughter of Zeus, meaning “Lady” and sometimes used by women to invoke her as a protective deity
Parnassos (Par-NASS-uss) – mountain west of Thebes and the site of Apollos’s sanctuary at Delphi (also associated with the cult of Dionysus)
Persephone (Per-SE=foh-nee) – daughter of Zeus and Demeter carried off in the Underworld by Hades to be his queen; her ascent to rejoin her mother formed the crucial myth associated with the Eleusinian Mysteries
Phineus (FIN-ee-uss) – king of the Thracian city of Salmydessos and husband of Kleopatra, daughter of Boreas; he divorced her to marry and 2 and he imprisons and mistreats Kleopatra while his 2
Pluto (PLOO-toh) – another name for Hades meaning “rich”

Polyneices (Po-lee-NIGH-ceez) – son of Oedipus and Jocasta and rival for the throne of Thebes with his bother Eteokles; when both kill each other, Kreon forbids the burial of his body, leading to Antigone’s act of defiance
Salmydessos (Sal-mi-DESS-uss) – Thracian city on the SW shore of the Black Sea
Sipylos (SI-pi-loss)- mountan in Phrygia where Niobe was turned into stone
Tantalos – (TAN-tah-luss) mythical king of Phrygia, one of the 4 sinners punished in Hades for sharing the gods’ divine food with mortals after invited to a feast
Teiresias (Tie-REE-see-ass) – aged, blind seer of Thebes who prophesies doom for both Oedipus and Kreon
Thebes (Theebz) – ancient city in central Greece founded by Kadmos and ruled by the Labdakids, the family of Oedipus; t had massive walls with 7 gates
Thyads (THIGH-adz) – female worshipers of Dionysus noted for ecstatic dances