The Myriad - Westminster's Interactive Undergraduate Academic Journal Website
Summer 2004

Summer 2004

The Summer 2004 issue of the Myriad is our pilot issue. Feedback is greatly appreciated and will be used to create guidelines for future issues of this journal.


Gender and Identity in Hamlet: A Modern Interpretation of Ophelia
by Heather Brown
This essay utilizes Virginia Woolf's modern reading of history in A Room of One's Own to frame an understanding of Hamlet's Ophelia. Contrary to some critics, Brown argues that Ophelia epitomizes a source of sympathy due to her loss of identity after the removal of patriarchal dominance. She refutes claims that Ophelia admirably asserts her identity through suicide and, instead, interprets Ophelia in terms of Woolf's "mirror" concept: she serves as a foil to male characters and a catalyst to their "heroic action." Male characters in Hamlet act as puppeteers, manipulating Ophelia to the extent that her identity exists explicitly as a function of their needs. Once their influence is removed, Ophelia's subsequent madness reveals not a release from patriarchy but a fixation upon the patriarchs--an inability to define herself apart from her relation to men. By examining Ophelia's characterization through the lens of Woolf, Brown shows we can understand Ophelia as lacking precisely the strong, autonomous feminist tradition that contemporary critics have since attempted to fashion upon her.

Happiness and Social Acceptance in Aristotle and Shakespeare by Raymond Bradford
This paper compares Aristotle's views on the attainment of happiness in Nichomachaen Ethics to Shakespeare's implicit examination of the subject in Othello. Bradford contends that despite admitting the need for some external fortune and social interaction, Aristotle's hierarchical views on happiness ultimately depend upon individual excellence and mental self-sufficiency.In contrast, Othello presents characters that, despite the distinct nature of their lives, require social acceptance and security before they can acquire happiness. In drawing this distinction, Bradford notes Shakespeare's tendency to assign a more crucial role to social interaction and infighting in providing or preventing happiness--a fundamental difference he attributes to the increasing social mobility of Renaissance England.


Contradictions Of Cold War Diplomacy: The United States And Tibet, 1942-1974
by Benjamin Austin
By mid 1950, Tibet had been all but abandoned, not by the Chinese, who occupied it, but by the "free world." Owing to the complexities of Cold War politics and paranoia, Tibet became a symbol of the United States State Department's dualism. While paying lip service to the Dalai Lama and the Tibetan loyalists, the United States government never made a substantive diplomatic or military move to help Tibet fight off Chinese occupation. This paper analyzes this dichotomy as a Cold War phenomenon.


The Need for Self-Criticism in History
by Stewart Anderson
This paper asks the question: To what extent is history scientific? Anderson argues both for and against scientific history, employing works written by historians, philosophers of social sciences, and, of course, philosophers of history. His answer is that a Foucauldian model of history which looks at the past only in terms of the present addresses these concerns. He also outlines a more plausible approach to history along these lines.


The Illusion of Control: What's Luck Got To Do With It?
by Andrea Breinholt and Lynnette A. Dalrymple
This study examines the relationship between desire for control and belief in luck as a predictor of illusory judgments.Breinholt and Dalrympleshow that under low involvement conditions one's belief in luck will predict amount wagered whereas under high involvement conditions desire for control will reliably predict the amount wagered.

To Sleep Perchance to Dream: Trauma Response and the Function of Nightmares and Rumination in Trauma Survivors
by Lynnette Astrid Dalrymple
Though extensive research in the field of trauma has been conducted, no definitive explanation has been found as to the function of nightmares in trauma survivors and what comprises the risk factors of maladaptive trauma response. Focusing on the cognitive processes involved in adaptation to trauma, Dalrymple reviews five of the best established and most substantiated theories. These five theories: Horowitz's (1986) theory of stress responses and Janoff Bulman's (1983, 1992) theory of assumptive worlds, Jones and Barlow's (1990) theory, Pennebaker's (1987) theory, and Litz and Keane's (1989) theory are comprehensive, influential, and innovative representations of empirical research. After review of these five theories, Dalrymple lists what future research needs to be done to attain further insight into the phenomenons of trauma and trauma response.


DNA Repair and Photoprotection in Halophilic Archaea
by Jason Rupp, Ashlee Allred, Bonnie K. Baxter
Halophilic Archaea are much more resistant to ultraviolet (UV) light damage than Escherichia coli and other species of Bacteria. Extreme halophilic organisms use light-driven ion pumps to maintain an acceptable internal environment despite living in water that has salt concentrations up to 30%. This need for light requires that the organisms experience more UV exposure than most other known microorganisms. For this reason, they have developed survival mechanisms, including efficient DNA repair processes. We propose that halophilic Archaea also employ photoprotective mechanisms such as low adenine-thymine ratios to avoid thymine dimers and pigmentation to protect from UV damage. Rupp, Allred, and Baxter examined several strains, including Halobacteria NRC-1 and an unidentified isolate from the Cargill salterns near Great Salt Lake, Utah.

Genetic and Clinical Characteristics of 103 Patients With Primary Pulmonary Hypertension
by Eric W. Glissmeyer, Greg T. Havlena, B.S., Jon Schmidt, John Carlquist, PhD., Bonnie Baxter, PhD.,and C. Greg Elliott, MD.
Mutations in the gene that codes for bone morphogenetic protein receptor two (BMPR2) are present in many patients with primary pulmonary hypertension (PPH). The purpose of this study is to identify novel mutations in BMPR2 and report clinical characteristics of PPH patients heterozygous for mutations in BMPR2. Glissmeyer uses high-resolution melting curve analysis and subsequent gene sequencingto scan the BMPR2 gene of 103 patients affected by either sporadic or familial PPH. He found seven novel BMPR2 mutations exist in this cohort of 112 PPH patients. The severity of disease observed in patients with PPH does not appear to be affected by the presence of mutations in BMPR2; however, such mutations do appear to affect the likelihood of vasoreactivity in the PPH patient.