2005 History Abstracts
2005 Research Fair Archive - History Abstracts
Brothers in Arms, Ernesto Guevara and Fidel Castro
Fidel Castro and Ernesto "Che" Guevara top the list of famous modern revolutionaries. Using several academic models of revolutionists, a critical analysis of the relationship between Castro and Guevara will reveal two very different revolutionary personalities: the idealist, Guevara, and the administrator, Castro. Both were instrumental in the success of the Cuban Revolution of 1959, but their intellectual differences are also important. There can be no doubt that Fidel Castro is the heart and supreme leader of the Cuban Revolution Party (or the July 26 Movement); yet Castro could not export revolution or achieve it at home without Guevara. The two men are forever linked, and their actions in 1959 have set the revolutionary standard in the modern age.
Counter-Productive Bombing, Brought to you by the U.S. Government
Prolonged utilization of bombings fail to produce desired results. American air campaigns during Vietnam present questions surrounding the decision making of the executive branch. Air warfare policy authors hypothesized that strategic and tactical bombardments achieve military, economic, and psychological capitulation, this is a miscalculation. Despite the disparity bombings continued. U.S aircraft unloaded more explosives on Vietnam then both theaters of WWII. At some point one might question the viability of bombing however Lyndon Johnson pushed forward. Nixon completed Johnson's unfinished work and this paper finally asks what motivated the tremendous destruction. Why continue bombing when it neglects to produce expected results?
Black Dreams of Spain, Anarchism and the Spanish Revolution
The passion and devotion of the Spanish Anarchist Movement culminated in profound social revolution in the late 1930s. For seventy years the movement was shaped by essential anarchist principles and the extant conditions of late 19th and early 20th century Spain. There is something unique in the Spanish character that invited and cultivated a thriving anarchist movement. This paper provides an analysis of anarchist theories and ideas, and the impact of anarchists on the socio-political fabric of Spain, 1866-1939.
The Hammer & Sickle: Propaganda and the Success of the Russian Revolution
In the small towns and villages of Russia the average peasant or worker had no understanding of the theories of Karl Marx and Fredrick Engels, nor could they outline the basic tenants of the proletariat revolution, a fundamental concept in communist ideology. Prior to the 1917 revolutions, the Russian people had become attached to the beloved image of an imperial father, an image personified by Tsar Nicolas II. After the Romanov Dynasty collapsed and the provisional government was overtaken, new revolutionary leaders were met with the challenge of replacing the familiar image of the Tsar with images of revolution. In addition, the revolution would require mass mobilization and participation in a social and political paradigm shift. And the people would have to be won over by a philosophy that had previously been completely foreign to them. However, people from the Ural Mountains to Far Eastern Pacific, from the Arctic Siberian Tundra to the boarders of India, were mobilized and integrated into a social transformation which seemed to span from end of the ideological spectrum to the other. With the use of chants, rituals and propaganda, multifaceted political philosophy was broken down into simple common denominations.
Specifically, the paper will focus on Bolshevik propaganda in the time period surrounding the revolution of 1917. Mediums of propaganda will symbols include party emblems, seals, iconography and political insignias from the hammer and sickle to the red five point star. Rituals such as parades, unveilings, celebrations, chants, and motivational rhetoric in speech and communication as well as social illustrations including posters, political cartoons, social imagery and political artwork will also be examined as a means of redefining post-revolutionary Russian identity in multiple socio-political aspects.
Innocent III St. Peter's Illegitimate Heir
This paper will discuss the papacy of Innocent III (1198-1216). It will particularly focus on his actions within the secular realm. Innocent III called crusades, persecuted “heretics,” and even crowned kings. These ventures into the secular world have created controversy regarding Innocent III’s reign. This paper will analyze the actions of Innocent III and discuss that he did not fulfill the traditional role of the pope. Innocent III acted frowardly as a spiritual leader and pope when he became too political and involved the papacy in areas that did not pertain to the holy directive of the Catholic Church. To prove this point, Innocent’s actions will be compared with the writings of St. Peter, the first Bishop of Rome, and upon whom the papacy built its claim of spiritual supremacy.