2007 Research Fair - Nursing Abstracts
This literature review examined eight research studies related to the use of music therapy as a means of reducing anxiety in hospitalized children. The research included qualitative studies, quantitative studies and studies using triangulated methods. Psychosocial goals in pediatric music therapy include increased motivation to regain skills, increased self-esteem, decreased anxiety about medical procedures and the future, emotional and self-expression related to body image, level of functioning and losses, and enjoyment. The deep and instant appeal of music for most children provides an easy way for the nurse to form a relationship with the child. It is clear that music therapy does indeed have a positive effect on the distress levels of children. Music therapy helps reduce children’s pain levels before and after painful procedures. It helps them to get rid of frustration they have at being in the hospital. It also helps them to feel more in control of their situation by returning a sense of autonomy. It would be valuable for all nurses in a pediatric setting to include music therapy within their scope of practice.
Robotic Assisted Surgery
Patients undergoing surgery prefer the latest and greatest procedures available. Patients want small incisions and a good outcome. Most people in the United States “perceive new devices as being better.” Robotic-assisted surgery is the newest development in the surgical arena. It is a type of minimally invasive surgery that produces less trauma and pain for patients. The purpose of this review of the literature was to explore the question, “What are the benefits of robotic-assisted surgery?” Benefits of robotic-assisted surgery as compared with traditional surgical methods include such things as quicker recovery times, shortened hospital stays, smaller incisions and less scarring, less bleeding and post operative pain. In addition, nursing care is minimized by smaller incisions requiring less time with wound care and pain medication requirements are decreased. Nursing implications include the need to learn and understand the importance of proper patient and equipment positioning. The surgical nurse must have a full understanding of the robotic equipment including proper preparation of the equipment, knowledge of proper procedure should problems arise, and proper cleaning and sterilization of equipment. Preoperative, intraoperative and postoperative nursing care employs all of the general principles of any surgical procedure. The focus, as with any surgery, is on the patient’s safety and quality of care.
Do as I Say, Not as I Do
Nurses’ unhealthy lifestyle choices, attitudes, and habits draw attention to the inconsistency between what they teach and what they do. The purpose of this review of the literature was to answer the question, “What can nurses as role models do to positively or negatively effect patient health promotion?” Research shows that our personal attitudes, habits and lifestyle choices have an influence on our effectiveness as role models. As primary resources for patient education, nurses must be credible and trustworthy with the public. If nurses practice what they teach, they will provide a more realistic, balanced approach to nursing care. Prevention is the key. Screening tools that nurses promote for their patients such as mammograms, self-breast or testicular exams and colonoscopies are important for nurses to practice as well. Using sunscreen, seat belts and good body mechanics at work are prevention strategies that nurses must practice. If nurses smoke, they should stop. If they do not smoke, they should not start. Nurses need to put their knowledge about health to good use. They need to make healthy food choices, limiting salt, fat and sugar in their diets. In addition, nurses should exercise regularly and provide their bodies with enough sleep. They need to allow time for relaxation and develop methods for reducing stress. As role models, nurses can impact patient health promotion on a daily basis.
What are Xenoestrogens?
Cancer is one of the leading causes of death in the United States. Estrogen, specifically hormone replacement therapy, has recently been associated with an increased risk of breast cancer, heart attacks, and stroke. Increased estrogen levels have also been found to increase the risk of prostate cancer as well as other types of cancer found in the reproductive system. Breast cancer incidence has increased from one case in 20 women to one case in eight women since the 1950’s. This research focused on the question, “How do xenoestrogens contribute to breast disease in women?” Xeno = Foreign. Estrogen mimickers come from a large group of foreign compounds derived from synthetic materials like pesticides, plastics, body creams and other beauty products, detergents, food supplies, and our environment. Xenoestrogens have the ability to disrupt our natural hormonal systems, creating havoc that can lead to an increase in breast cell proliferation, fibrocystic breast disease, and an increased risk for developing breast cancer. Xenoestrogens are found in such things as gasoline fumes, plastics, medicines, pesticides, perfumes, and countless body products used every day by millions of Americans. Xenoestrogens can mimick naturally occurring estrogens in the human body. The response from the body to this increase can create subtle problems as well as other problems that may be overlooked. Nursing implications for patient teaching include instructions to use glass or ceramics whenever possible to store food and water, use a simple detergent with less chemicals, choose a simple soap for body wash and shampoo, avoid synthetic chemicals, buy hormone-free meat, buy organic produce, exercise regularly, and avoid creams and lotions containing parabens as much as possible.
According to the literature, pneumonia is the most common nosocomial infection in intensive care units. Oral care in hospitals is inconsistent and historically done at nurses’ discretion despite the fact that the primary mode of pneumonia transmission is aspiration of colonized oropharyngeal secretions. Dental plaque and oral bacteria from inadequate oral care are the main organisms in causing pneumonia. Mechanically ventilated patients are especially at risk for developing pneumonia. The purpose of this literature review was to answer the question, “How does oral care decrease the incidence of hospital acquired pneumonia?” Not initiating proper oral care increases the patient’s risk for acquiring pneumonia. In turn, this increases the patient’s hospital stay which increases the patient’s medical costs. It leads to the potential for the spread of infection to other patients. It places additional demands on the health care team to return the patient back to pre-pneumonia status. Implementing proper oral care saves time in the long run by decreasing patient complications and nursing duties pertaining to the patient. The cost per patient day for oral care is negligible. This work includes a conceptual model which identifies barriers that affect oral care in ICU patients.